Glossary for International Business (ENG.HEG.MGT.017)
This glossary contains terms extracted from the course material for the module MKT601 and others. The ENG-4-MBA method facilitates the learning process for Vietnamese learners who are introduced to the equivalent terms in Vietnamese as they get acquainted to the concept in English being explained in a clear and simple way under this glossary. Learning about the concept in both English and one's own mother tongue is a very effective pedagogical approach.
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Definition in English:
Equivalent Term in Vietnamese:
Tính thẩm mỹ
In an international transaction, intermediaries who represent the principal (home manufacturer/marketer) rather than themselves; agent middlemen work on commission and arrange for sales in the foreign country but do not take title to the merchandise.
Term in Vietnamese: Đại lý trung gian thương mại
A method of market estimation that assumes that demand for a product develops in much the same way in all countries as comparable economic development occurs in each country.
Term in Vietnamese: Phương pháp loại suy (quá trình suy luận dựa trên sự giống nhau)
A procedure, used as an alternative to litigation, in which parties in a dispute may select a disinterested third party or parties as referee to determine the merits of the case and make a judgment that both parties agree to honor.
Proposed term in Vietnamese: Trọng tài giải quyết tranh chấp thương mại
ASEAN Free Trade Agreement (AFTA)
A free trade agreement (FTA) or treaty is a multinational agreement according to international law to form a free-trade area between the cooperating states. FTAs, a form of trade pacts, determine the tariffs and duties that countries impose on imports and exports with the goal of reducing or eliminating trade barriers, thus affecting international trade.
Such agreements usually "center on a chapter providing for preferential tariff treatment", but they also often "include clauses on trade facilitation and rule-making in areas such as investment, intellectual property, government procurement, technical standards and sanitary and phytosanitary issues
Term in Vietnamese: Khu vực mậu dịch thương mại tự do thuộc Hiệp hội các quốc gia Đông Nam Á (ASEAN)
Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)
ASEAN is a regional trade organisation that includes ten countries in Southeast Asia: Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam.
Term in Vietnamese: Hiệp hội các Quốc gia Đông Nam Á, ASEAN
The process in which a document, such as a questionnaire, or phrase is translated from one language to another and then translated by a second party into the original language. Back translations can be used to verify that the first translation.
Terms in Vietnamese: Quá trình dịch ngược để kiểm tra độ chính xác của văn bản
Balance of Payment
The system of accounts that record a nation's international financial transactions.
Term in Vietnamese: Cán cân thanh toán
Balance of Trade
The difference in value over a period of time between a country's imports and exports.
Term in Vietnamese: Cán cân thương mại
The direct exchange of goods between two parties in a transaction.
Terms in Vietnamese: Việc trao đổi hàng hóa trong thương mại
Best Alternative to a negotiated agreement (BATNA)
Acronym for “best alternative to a negotiated agreement,” a notion discussed in Getting to Yes , by Fisher, Ury, and Patton.
Term in Vietnamese: Biện pháp dự phòng tốt nhất trong giao dịch kinh doanh chính là có một thỏa thuận trước giữa hai bên để ngăn ngừa những rủi ro có thể xảy đến.
Big Emerging Markets (BEM)
BEM is used to describe the core group of populous nations that will account for much of the growth in world trade among developing and newly industrialized countries.
Terms in Vietnamese: Những thị trường kinh doanh lớn mới nổi lên
Bills of Exchange
A form of international commercial payment drawn by sellers on foreign buyers; in transactions based on bills of exchange, the seller assumes all risk until the actual dollars are received, making them riskier for the seller than letters of credit.
Term in Vietnamese: Hối phiếu
Bottom-of-the-pyramid Markets (BOPM)
Bottom-of-the-pyramid markets include of the 4 billion people around the world with incomes of US$1,200 or less per capita. They are not necessarily defined by national borders, but are rather pockets of poverty particularly concentrated in south Asia and Sub-Sahara Africa.
Term in Vietnamese: Đáy của thị trường hình kim tự tháp,tức là nhóm các nước có thu nhập thấp
The use of funds, usually illegally, to influence decisions made by public employees and government officials. Such payments often range into the millions of dollars in international commerce.
Term in Vietnamese: Hối lộ
The portion of a balance of payments statement that shows a record of direct investment, portfolio investment, and short-term capital movements to and from countries.
Term in Vietnamese: Tài khoản, cán cân vốn kinh doanh
Companies, often providers of services, that follow companies that first moved into a foreign market; for example, an American insurance company setting up in Mexico to serve a U.S. auto company that had previously opened a factory there.
Term in Vietnamese: Người theo dõi khách hàng để giúp công ty khách hàng đứng vững ở thị trường mới
A legal system based on an all-inclusive system of written rules, or codes, of law; generally divided into three separate codes: commercial, civil, and criminal. In the United States, Louisiana is the one state to use code law.
Terms in Vietnamese: Hệ thống luật dựa trên án lệ