Glossary for International Business (ENG.HEG.MGT.017)

This glossary contains terms extracted from the course material for the module MKT601 and others. The ENG-4-MBA method facilitates  the learning process for Vietnamese learners who are introduced to the equivalent terms in Vietnamese as they get acquainted to the concept in English being explained in a clear and simple way under this glossary. Learning about the concept in both English and one's own mother tongue is a very effective pedagogical approach.

Browse the glossary using this index

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Administered Pricing

Definition in English: 

The attempt to establish prices for an entire market through the cooperation of competitors, through national, state, or local governments, or by international agreement. Its legality differs from country to country and from time to time.

Equivalent terms in Vietnamese : 

Giá cả đã được quy định

Entry link: Administered Pricing


Definition in English:
Philosophically, the term means the creation and appreciation of beauty. Collectively, the term englobes the arts, including folklore, music, drama, and dance.

Equivalent Term in Vietnamese: 

Tính thẩm mỹ

Entry link: Aesthetics

Agent Middleman

In an international transaction, intermediaries who represent the principal (home manufacturer/marketer) rather than themselves; agent middlemen work on commission and arrange for sales in the foreign country but do not take title to the merchandise. 

Term in Vietnamese: Đại lý trung gian thương mại


Entry link: Agent Middleman


A method of market estimation that assumes that demand for a product develops in much the same way in all countries as comparable economic development occurs in each country.

Term in Vietnamese: Phương pháp loại suy (quá trình suy luận dựa trên sự giống nhau)

Entry link: Analogy


A procedure, used as an alternative to litigation, in which parties in a dispute may select a disinterested third party or parties as referee to determine the merits of the case and make a judgment that both parties agree to honor.

Proposed term in Vietnamese: Trọng tài giải quyết tranh chấp thương mại

Entry link: Arbitration


A forum for ministers of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations plus ministers from China, Japan, and South Korea.

Term in Vietnamese: ASEAN +3 là sự hợp tác giữa Hiệp hội các quốc gia Đông Nam Á- ASEAN và ba quốc gia Đông Bắc Á bao gồm : Nhật Bản, Hàn QuốcTrung Quốc.

Entry link: ASEAN +3

ASEAN Free Trade Agreement (AFTA)

free trade agreement (FTA) or treaty is a multinational agreement according to international law to form a free-trade area between the cooperating states. FTAs, a form of trade pacts, determine the tariffs and duties that countries impose on imports and exports with the goal of reducing or eliminating trade barriers, thus affecting international trade

Such agreements usually "center on a chapter providing for preferential tariff treatment", but they also often "include clauses on trade facilitation and rule-making in areas such as investment, intellectual property, government procurement, technical standards and sanitary and phytosanitary issues

Term in Vietnamese: Khu vực mậu dịch thương mại tự do thuộc Hiệp hội các quốc gia Đông Nam Á (ASEAN)

Entry link: ASEAN Free Trade Agreement (AFTA)

Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)

ASEAN is a regional trade organisation that includes ten countries in Southeast Asia: Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam.

Term in Vietnamese: Hiệp hội các Quốc gia Đông Nam Á, ASEAN

Entry link: Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)


Back Translation

The process in which a document, such as a questionnaire, or phrase is translated from one language to another and then translated by a second party into the original language. Back translations can be used to verify that the first translation.

Terms in Vietnamese: Quá trình dịch ngược để kiểm tra độ chính xác của văn bản

Entry link: Back Translation

Balance of Payment

The system of accounts that record a nation's international financial transactions.

Term in Vietnamese: Cán cân thanh toán

Entry link: Balance of Payment

Balance of Trade

The difference in value over a period of time between a country's imports and exports.

Term in Vietnamese: Cán cân thương mại

Entry link: Balance of Trade

Barter Trade

The direct exchange of goods between two parties in a transaction. 

Terms in Vietnamese: Việc trao đổi hàng hóa trong thương mại

Entry link: Barter Trade

Best Alternative to a negotiated agreement (BATNA)

Acronym for “best alternative to a negotiated agreement,” a notion discussed in Getting to Yes , by Fisher, Ury, and Patton.

Term in Vietnamese: Biện pháp dự phòng tốt nhất trong giao dịch kinh doanh chính là có một thỏa thuận trước giữa hai bên để ngăn ngừa những rủi ro có thể xảy đến.

Entry link: Best Alternative to a negotiated agreement (BATNA)

Big Emerging Markets (BEM)

BEM is used to describe the core group of populous nations that will account for much of the growth in world trade among developing and newly industrialized countries.

Terms in Vietnamese: Những thị trường kinh doanh lớn mới nổi lên

Entry link: Big Emerging Markets (BEM)

Bills of Exchange

A form of international commercial payment drawn by sellers on foreign buyers; in transactions based on bills of exchange, the seller assumes all risk until the actual dollars are received, making them riskier for the seller than letters of credit.

Term in Vietnamese: Hối phiếu

Entry link: Bills of Exchange

Bottom-of-the-pyramid Markets (BOPM)

Bottom-of-the-pyramid markets include of the 4 billion people around the world with incomes of US$1,200 or less per capita. They are not necessarily defined by national borders, but are rather pockets of poverty particularly concentrated in south Asia and Sub-Sahara Africa.

Term in Vietnamese: Đáy của thị trường hình kim tự tháp,tức là nhóm các nước có thu nhập thấp

Entry link: Bottom-of-the-pyramid Markets (BOPM)


The use of funds, usually illegally, to influence decisions made by public employees and government officials. Such payments often range into the millions of dollars in international commerce.

Term in Vietnamese: Hối lộ

Entry link: Bribery


Capital Accounts

The portion of a balance of payments statement that shows a record of direct investment, portfolio investment, and short-term capital movements to and from countries.

Term in Vietnamese: Tài khoản, cán cân vốn kinh doanh

Entry link: Capital Accounts

Client Followers

Companies, often providers of services, that follow companies that first moved into a foreign market; for example, an American insurance company setting up in Mexico to serve a U.S. auto company that had previously opened a factory there.

Term in Vietnamese: Người theo dõi khách hàng để giúp công ty khách hàng đứng vững ở thị trường mới

Entry link: Client Followers

Code law

A legal system based on an all-inclusive system of written rules, or codes, of law; generally divided into three separate codes: commercial, civil, and criminal. In the United States, Louisiana is the one state to use code law.

Terms in Vietnamese: Hệ thống luật dựa trên án lệ

Entry link: Code law

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